麻醉药

麻醉药
                   麻醉药
       
       麻醉药是指能使整个机体或机体局部暂时、可逆性失去知觉及痛觉的药物。根据其作用范围
可分为全身麻醉药及局部麻醉药,全身麻醉药及局部麻醉药根据其作用特点和给药方式不同,又可分为吸入麻醉药和静脉麻醉药。

副作用

  各种麻醉方法固然使病患在镇静、无痛的舒适状态下进行手术,但是麻醉药物除了影响意识、改变疼痛认知程度外,也会干扰病患的正常生理功能,诸如心跳、血压、呼吸等,因此医护人员会担心麻醉药物是否使用适当?病患是否承受得起伴随麻醉而来的负面影响?所以手术麻醉自然也会存在着某种程度的风险性。
  不同的病患接受麻醉的风险不尽相同,目前较常用的麻醉风险分类标准是采用「美国麻醉医师学会」建议的分类等级。它将手术病患的体位分成五级:麻醉风险最轻微的第一级是指除了手术矫正部分外,无任何系统性疾病之病患,如:单纯性阑尾炎患者。如果因外科或其它疾病而导致有全身性影响者,随着影响的程度,如:高血压糖尿病贫血或心脏衰竭等,麻醉风险的等级由第二级提高至第四级,而生命垂危随时可能死亡之患者,则是麻醉风险最高的第五级,例如:腹部血管瘤破裂合并休克者属之。
  简言之,上述麻醉风险的等级代表了病患在麻醉前本身疾病的严重程度,提供医护人员对手术病患麻醉前状态的评估。不同的分类等级也代表不同的手术麻醉期间的死亡率。根据大规模的统计,麻醉风险分类第一级的患者,麻醉期间死亡率约为万分之六。随着风险等级的提高,死亡率也增加。而分类第五级的死亡率可高达百分之五十!

麻醉药品

   1.醋托啡Acetorphine
  2.乙酰阿法甲基芬太尼Acetylalphamethylfentanyl
  3.醋美沙朵Acetylmethadol
  4.阿芬太尼Alfentanil
  5.烯丙罗定Allylprodine
  6.阿醋美沙朵Alphacetylmethadol
  7.阿法美罗定Alphameprodine
  8.阿法美沙朵Alphamethadol
  9.阿法甲基芬太尼Alphamethylfentanyl
  10.阿法甲基硫代芬太尼Alphamethylthiofentanyl
  11.阿法罗定* Alphaprodine
  12.阿尼利定Anileridine
  13.苄替啶Benzethidine
  14.苄吗啡Benzylmorphine
  15.倍醋美沙朵Betacetylmethadol
  16.倍他羟基芬太尼Betahydroxyfentanyl
  17.倍他羟基-3-甲基芬太尼Betahydroxy-3-methylfentanyl
  18.倍他美罗定Betameprodine
  19.倍他美沙朵Betamethadol
  20.倍他罗定Betaprodine
  21.贝齐米特Bezitramide
  22.大麻与大麻树脂Cannabis and Cannabis resin
  23.氯尼他秦Clonitazene
  24.古柯叶Coca Leaf
  25.可卡因* Cocaine
  26.可多克辛Codoxime
  27.罂粟秆浓缩物* Concentrate of poppy straw
  28.地索吗啡Desomorphine
  29..右吗拉胺Dextromoramide
  30.地恩丙胺Diampromide
  31.二乙噻丁Diethylthiambutene
  32.地芬诺辛Difenoxin
  33.二氢埃托啡* Dihydroetorphine
  34.双氢吗啡Dihydromorphine
  35.地美沙朵Dimenoxadol
  36.地美庚醇Dimepheptanol
  37.二甲噻丁Dimethylthiambutene
  38.吗苯丁酯Dioxaphetyl butyrate
  39.地芬诺酯* Diphenoxylate
  40.地匹哌酮Dipipanone
  41.羟蒂巴酚Drotebanol
  42.芽子碱Ecgonine
  43.乙甲噻丁Ethylmethylthiambutene
  44.依托尼秦Etonitazene
  45.埃托啡Etorphine
  46.依托利定Etoxeridine
  47.芬太尼* Fentanyl
  48.呋替啶Furethidine
  49.海洛因Heroin
  50.氢可酮* Hydrocodone
  51.氢吗啡醇Hydromorphinol
  52.氢吗啡酮Hydromorphone
  53.羟哌替啶Hydroxypethidine
  54.异美沙酮Isomethadone
  55.凯托米酮Ketobemidone
  56.左美沙芬Levomethorphan
  57.左吗拉胺Levomoramide
  58.左芬啡烷Levophenacylmorphan
  59.左啡诺Levorphanol
  60.美他佐辛Metazocine
  61.美沙酮* Methadone
  62.美沙酮中间体Methadone intermediate
  63.甲地索啡Methyldesorphine
  64.甲二氢吗啡Methyldihydromorphine
  65. 3-甲基芬太尼3-methylfentanyl
  66. 3-甲基硫代芬太尼3-methylthiofentanyl
  67.美托酮Metopon
  68.吗拉胺中间体Moramide intermediate
  69.吗哌利定Morpheridine
  70.吗啡* Morphine
  71.吗啡甲溴化物及其它五价氮吗啡衍生物Morphine Methobromide and other pentavalent nitrogen morphine derivatives
  72.吗啡-N-氧化物Morphine-N-oxide
  73. 1-甲基-4-苯基-4-哌啶丙酸酯MPPP
  74.麦罗啡Myrophine
  75.尼可吗啡Nicomorphine
  76.诺美沙朵Noracymethadol
  77.去甲左啡诺Norlevorphanol
  78.去甲美沙酮Normethadone
  79.去甲吗啡Normorphine
  80.诺匹哌酮Norpipanone
  81.阿片* Opium
  82.羟考酮* Oxycodone
  83.羟吗啡酮Oxymorphone
  84.对氟芬太尼Parafluorofentanyl
  85. 1-苯乙基-4-苯基-4-哌啶乙酸酯PEPAP
  86.哌替啶* Pethidine
  87.哌替啶中间体A Pethidine intermediate A
  88.哌替啶中间体B Pethidine intermediate B
  89.哌替啶中间体C Pethidine intermediate C
  90.苯吗庚酮Phenadoxone
  91.非那丙胺Phenampromide
  92.非那佐辛Phenazocine
  93.非诺啡烷Phenomorphan
  94.苯哌利定Phenoperidine
  95.匹米诺定Piminodine
  96.哌腈米特Piritramide
  97.罂粟壳* Poppy Shell
  98.普罗庚嗪Proheptazine
  99.丙哌利定Properidine
  100.消旋甲啡烷Racemethorphan
  101.消旋吗拉胺Racemoramide
  102.消旋啡烷Racemorphan
  103瑞芬太尼* Remifentanil
  104.舒芬太尼* Sufentanil
  105.醋氢可酮Thebacon
  106.蒂巴因* Thebaine
  107.硫代芬太尼Thiofentanyl
  108.替利定Tilidine
  109.三甲利定Trimeperidine
  110.醋氢可待因Acetyldihydrocodeine
  111.布桂嗪* Bucinnazine
  112.可待因* Codeine
  113.复方樟脑酊* Compound Camphor Tincture
  114.右丙氧芬* Dextropropoxyphene
  115.双氢可待因* Dihydrocodeine
  116.乙基吗啡* Ethylmorphine
  117.尼可待因Nicocodine
  118.尼二氢可待因Nicodicodine
  119.去甲可待因Norcodeine
  120.福尔可定* Pholcodine
  121.丙吡兰Propiram
  122.阿桔片* Compound Platycodon Tablets
  123.吗啡阿托品注射液* Morphine and Atropine Sulfate Injection