语法

  语法是语言学的一个分支,研究按确定用法来运用的词类、词的屈折变化或表示相互关系的其他手段以及词在句中的功能和关系。包括词法和句法。词法指词的构成及变化规律;句法指短语和句子的组织规律。 

简介

语法
语法
  一种语言词法和句法的汇集,它包含词的构词、构形的规则和组词成句的规则。语法有两个含义,一指语法结构规律本身,即语法事实。一指语法学,是探索并描写语法结构的科学,是语法学者对客观存在的语法体系的认识和说明。语法事实本身没有分歧,但由于语法学者占有的材料不同,观察问题的角度,分析问题的方法不一致,语法学体系是有分歧的。语法包括词法和句法两部分。词法主要是指词的构成,变化和分类规律。句法主要是指短语和句子等语法单位的构成和变化规则。  

特点

  语法具有以下一些最基本的特征:
  抽象性
  具体的句子是无限的,但语法的规则却是有限的。换句话说,从成千上万个具体的个别的句法结构中可以概括出一些语法规则来。
  生成性
  我们可以根据有限的语法规则造出无数合格的句子来,这就表现了语法的生成性。语法规则的生成性,集中的表现在两个方面:组合关系和聚合关系。
  层次性
  语法从表面上看是线性排列的东西,但是语法结构却是有层次性的。除了联合短语外,主谓,述宾,述补,偏正等短语都能切分出两个直接成分。直接成分还可以进一步切分出更小的直接成分,这样复杂短语就可以由大到小分析出若干层次。例如汉语:我们 进行 社会 调查
  |__||_____________| 主谓关系
语法
语法
  |__||________| 述宾关系
  |___||___| 偏正关系
  语法的层次性与语法的递归性密切相关。
  递归性
  递归是说,各种语法结构的关系是有限的,但是在语言单位的组合过程中,可以反复无限地使用这些有限的规则,从而使句法结构复杂化。例如:我买书./我买一本书./我买一本有趣的书./我买一本××写的有趣的书.
  如果没有这种"递归性",某种语法规则在一个句法结构里使用过一次就不能再用了。那么,我们能够造出的句子一定是相当简单而缺乏变化的,一定不能灵活自如的表达各种复杂的思想感情。
  系统性
  语法是一个严密的立体的开放的系统网络。所谓"严密",是指系统的内部是相互制约的,要受到一定的规则的支配,不是可以随心所欲的。所谓"立体",是指语法系统包括了句法结构,语法意义,语言运用这三个交叉的不同平面。所谓"开放",是指语法系统是发展变化的,一直在不断地自我完善,旧的成份被逐渐淘汰,新的因素在不断产生。语法系统内部又由若干个子系统构成,例如语素系统,词类系统,短语系统,句子系统,句群系统,每个子系统可能由若干个孙系统构成。词类系统内部可以分为实词系统和虚词系统。句子系统内部可以分为单句系统,复句系统等等,从而形成一个系统网络。
  稳固性
  语法与基本词汇构成语言的基础,具有很大的稳固性。语法也会随着时间的推移而发展演变,但是语法的变化比词汇,语音的变化缓慢得多,而且语法很难受到外来因素的影响而改变。语法的稳固性与语法的抽象性密切相关。语法是一个由各种抽象规则构成的有机系统,许多语法手段和语法范畴历经千百年而很少发生变化。
  民族性
语法
语法
  每种语言都有明显的民族特点。不仅表现在语音和词汇上,也表现在语法上。汉语的语法比较隐蔽,汉语语法的民族性特点是在同其他语言的比较中得出的。汉语语法中语序和虚词的运用非常重要。印欧语常用词尾的形态变化来表示句法功能的变化。比较:
  汉语是SVO型语言:陈述句一般顺序是:主语+动词+宾语.
  日语是SOV型语言:陈述句的顺序是:主语+宾语+动词.
  英语:由于没有量词,数词可以直接和名词组合。如:a table(桌子)/a pen(钢笔).汉语数词一般不能直接与名词组合,中间要用量词来组接,并且哪个名词与哪个量词组合有一定的搭配习惯。如:一张桌子……世界上有许多语言,词语的排列顺序是比较自由的。如在俄语中,"我爱祖国"便有三种语序,汉语却是另外一种情形,语序非常重要。  

英语语法结构表

  说明
  一、本表列出了普通高等专科英语课程教学中学生需要掌握的语法知识,共40项。
  二、本标旨在巩固和加深学生对语法知识的理解和运用,提高学生在句子和篇章层次上的实际运用能力,因此并不要求在教学中对所列全部项目进行专题讲授。
  三、标有*号的各个项目为教学重点。
语法
语法
  四、在制定本表过程中,主要参考了
  1.《大学英语教学大纲[增订本](高等学校理工科本科用)》,高等教育出版社,1988。
  2.《大学英语教学大纲(高等学校文理课本科用)》,上海外语教育出版社,1986
  Symbols & Abbreviations
  / Choice
  Adj Adjective
  Adv Adverb
  N Noun
  Prep Preposition
  V Verb
  V-ing Present participle / gerund
  V-ed Past form of verb
  V-ed Past participle
  To V Infinitive
  S Subject
  O Object
  Oi Indirect object
  Od Direct object
  Cs Subject complement
  Co Object complement
  wh-words who, when, where, how, why, which, whether.
  1. Noun (名词)
  1.1 Classes of N :countable vs uncountable (名词的种类:可数名词与不可数名词)
  1.2 Conversion of uncountable into countable (不可数名词转化为可数名词)
  1.3 Number of N (名词的数)
  1.4 Irregular plurals (不规则复数)
  1.5 Genitive case of N (名词的所有格)
  1.6 Double genitive (双重所有格)
  e.g. a portrait of Mr Brown’s (cf. a portrait of Mr Brown )
  2. Pronoun (代词)
  2.1 Personal pronoun (人称代词)
  2.2 Possessive pronoun (物主代词)
  2.3 Reflexive pronoun (反身代词)
  2.4 Interrogative pronoun (疑问代词)
  2.5 Indefinite pronoun (不定代词)
  3. Numeral (数次)
  3.1 Cardinal and ordinal numbers (基数词和序数词)
  3.2 Percentage (百分数)
  3.3 Fraction (分数)
  3.4 Decimal (小数)
  3.5 Multiple (倍数)
  3.5.1 n times + N / Pron
  3.5.2 n times + as + Adj / Adv
  3.5.3 n times + Comparative +(than)
  3.5.4 V + (by) + n times
  4. Determiner (限定词)
  *4.1 Definite, indefinite and zero articles (定冠词,不定冠词,零冠词)
  *4.2 Any, all, both, each, every, either, neither, no, this, etc.
  *4.3 Quantifiers (数量词)
  e.g. many, a piece of, etc.
  5. Preposition (介词)
  6. Adjective (形容词)
  6.1 Syntactic function as (形容词的句法功能为):
  Attributive / Predicative / Adverb clause equivalent / N (定语,表语,副词性从句和名词)
  e.g. the young, the latest
  *6.2 Adj + Prep
  *6.3 Adj + to V
  6.4 too + Adj + to V / Adj + enough + to V / so + Adj + as + to V
  *6.5 be + Adj + that-clause
  7. Adverb (副词)
  7.1 Syntactic function as (副词的句法功能为):
  Modifier of Adj / Adv / Prep-phrase / N-Phrase / Adverb-clause (形容词、副词、介词短语、副词性从句的修饰语)
  7.2 Adverbs with or without -ly (带-ly和不带-ly的副词)
  e.g. high, highly; most, mostly
  7.3 Position of adverbs (副词的位置)
  8. The comparative and superlative degrees of Adj / Adv (形容词和副词的比较级和最高级)
  9. Verb classes (动词)
  9.1 Transitive and intransitive verbs (及物动词和不及物动词)
  9.2 Auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries (助动词和情态动词)
  *9.3 Semiauxiliaries (半助动词)
  e.g. appear to, be able to, etc
  *9.4 Phrasal verbs (短语动词)
  e.g. depend on, turn out, catch up with, pay attention to, take place, make sure, etc
  10. Tense (时态)
  10.1 Simple present, past, future and with modals (一般现在时,一般过去时, 一般将来时和情态助动词加动词)
  10.2 Present and past progressive (现在进行时和过去进行时0
  *10.3 Future progressive and with modals (将来进行时和情态动词加进行时)
  *10.4 Present and past perfect (现在完成时和过去完成时)
  *10.5 Future perfect and with modals (将来完成时和情态动词加完成时)
  *10.6 Present perfect progressive (现在完成进行时)
  10.7 Past perfect progressive (过去完成进行时)
  *11.Passive voice (被动语态)
  11.1 Passive voice in simple tense (被动语态的一般时态)
  11.2 Passive voice in perfect and progressive tenses (被动语态的完成和进行时态)
  11.3 Passive voice of phrasal verbs (短语动词的被动语态)
  12. Subjunctive mood (虚拟语气)
  12.1 in conditional sentences (用于条件句中)
  12.1.1 if + V-ed1, …would + V
  12.1.2 if + had + had + V-ed2, … would + have + V-ed2
  12.1.3 if + should / were to + V, …would + V
  12.1.4 omission of if ( if 的省略)
  12.2 in the following that-clause after (用于下列that从句中):
  wish
  demand, suggest
  It + be + suggested / desirable
  suggestion, recommendation
  12.3 in the following clauses and constructions (用于下列从句和结构中):
  as if, as though
  It is time that
  would rather / sooner that
  13. To V (Infinitive 动词不定式)
  13.1 as subject, object and complement (用作主语,宾语和补足语)
  13.2 Indicating purpose / result (表示目的和结果)
  *13.3 Modifying adjective (修饰形容词)
  *13.4 as post modifier in a noun phrase (后位修饰名词)
  13.5 It + (be) + Adj / N + to V
  *13.6 V + it + Co + to V
  *13.7 for + N + to V
  *13.8 wh-words + to V(phrase) (疑问词加不定式 [短语])
  *13.9 to be + V-ed2, to have + V-ed2, to be + V-ing (不定式的被动式,完成式和进行式)
  14. V-ing (Gerund 动名词)
  14.1 as object, subject and predicative(用作宾语,主语和表语)
  14.2 Prep + V-ing
  *14.3 It + be + …+ V-ing
  *14.4 N / Pron or their possessive + V-ing as subject and object(名词 / 代词或其所有格加动名词作主语和宾语)
  *14.5 Prep + N / Pron or their possessive + V-ing(介词加名词 / 代词或其所有格加动名词)
  *14.6 being + V-ed2, having + V-ed2, having been + V-ed2 as a noun equivalent(动名词的被动式,完成式和完成被动式起名词作用)
  15. V-ing and V-ed2 (Present and past participle
  15.1 as pre-modifier and post modifier in a noun phrase 现在分词和过去分词)
  15.2 as complement(作补足语)
  * 15.3 as an adverb clause equivalent(作状语)
  * 15.4 When / while, etc. + V-ing / V-ed2 (When / While 等加现在分词或过去分词)
  * 15.5 (with) N + V-ing / V-ed2 ( [ with ] 名词加现在分词或过去分词 )
  * 15.6 Dangling V-ing as adverb clause equivalent(无归属现在分词作状语)
  * 15.7 being + V-ed2, having + V-ed2, having been + V-ed2 as an adverb or adjective clause equivalent(现在分词的被动式、完成式和完成被动式作状语或定语)
  16. Basic sentence patterns and sentence elements(基本句型和句子成份)
  Pattern 1: S + V
  Pattern 2: S + V + Cs
  Pattern 3: S + V + O
  Pattern 4: S + V + Oi + Od
  Pattern 5: S + V + Od + Co
  17. Transformation of basic sentence pattern(基本句型转换)
  17.1 Interrogative form(疑问形式)
  17.2 Negative form(否定形式)
  17.3 Passive form(被动形式)
  18. There be (There be结构)
  18.1 There is / are / was / were + N + Adv
  *18. 2 There will (modal) be / exist(s) / seem(s) to be / appear(s) to be + N + Adv
  *18.3 There is / are + N + Adj / V-ing / V-ed2 / to V / relative clause(定语从句)
  *19. Agreement(一致关系)
  19.1 Subject and Verb(主语和谓语动词的一致关系)
  19.2 Pronoun and antecedent(代词和其先行词的一致关系)
  20. Noun clause(名词从句)
  20.1 that and omission of that, which(ever), who(ever), whom, whose
  *20.2 when, where, why, how, how much / many / long / often
  *20.3 whether, if
  *20.4 what(ever)
  *20.5 what (=the thing which)
  21. Relative clause(定语从句)
  21.1 Restrictive and non-restrictive(限制性和非限制性定语从句)
  21.2 that, which, who, whom, when, where, why
  * 21.3 whose
  *.21.4 Omission of that / which (that / which的省略)
  *21.5 (N / Pron + ) Prep + which / whom / whose
  *21.6 the same / such…as
  *.21.7 that (relative adverb) and its omission(关系副词that及其省略)
  *21.8 which / as (with sentential antecedent) (which / as指代句子)
  22. Apposition (同位)
  22.1 Noun (phrase) in apposition(名词[短语]的同位语)
  22.2 Appositive clause(同位语从句)
  22.3 Noun phrase appositive to clause(名词短语作句子的同位语)
  e.g.… an example of what we call…
  22.4 Explicit indicators of apposition(引出同位关系的明示标识词)
  e.g. that is (to say), for example
  23. Clause of time and space(时间从句和地点从句)
  23.1 when(ever), while, as, after, before, since
  *23.2 where(ever)
  *23.3 until, till
  *23.4 once, the moment, as soon as, each time, immediately (that), no sooner…than
  24. Clauses of condition, concession and contrast(条件从句、让步从句和对比从句)
  24.1 if, unless
  *24.2 provided / providing (that), as / so long as, in case, on condition that, supposing
  24.3 thought, although, whether, even though, even if
  *24.4 no matter + wh-words
  *24.5 wh-words + -ever
  *24.6 whereas, while
  *24.7 Adj / Adv + as / though
  25. Clauses of cause, result and purpose(原因从句、结果从句和目的从句)
  25.1 because, as, since, (so)…that, so(that), in order that
  *25.2 now (that), seeing that, considering that, in that
  *25.3 for fear that, lest
  *26. Clauses of manner and comparison(方式从句和比较从句)
  26.1 as, as…as, not so(so)…as, more than, less than, no / not more than
  26.2 as, just as
  26.3 as if, as though
  *27. Clauses of proportion and other types(比例从句和其它从句)
  27.1 the…, the…
  27.2 as…so
  27.3 except that
  27.4 as-clause following a noun and functioning as a relative clause(名词后的as从句作定语)
  e.g. Light as it comes from the sun is…
  *28. Coordination(并列)
  Coordinators: and, both…and, not only…but(also), as well as, either…or, neither…nor, whether…or, not…but, for, etc.
  *29. Clause with introductory it(用引导词it 的从句)
  29.1 Anticipatory it as subject or object
  *29.2 it in emphatic sentence
  e.g. It is / was…that / who
  *30. Pro-form(替代形式)
  30.1 Pro-forms for noun phrases(名词短语的替代形式)
  30.1.1 3rd person pronouns, and plurals of the 1st and 2nd person pronouns(第三人称代词,第一、二人称代词的复数)
  30.1.2 indefinite pronouns(不定代词)( + of + N / Pron)
  30.1.3 one, ones, that, those
  30.1.4 the same, the former, the latter
  30.2 Pro-forms for adverbials(副词的替代形式)
  here, then, thus
  30.3 Pro-forms for predicate(谓语的替代形式)
  30.3.1 do, do so
  30.3.2 so do, so will
  30.4 Sentence / Clause reference(句子或从句的替代形式)
  30.4.1 this, the following
  30.4.2 so, not
  e.g. A: Do you think he will come?
  B: Yes, I think so. (or) No, I think not.
  *31. Multiple modification(多级修饰)
  31.1 Multiple premodification(多级前位修饰)
  e.g. possibilities of obtaining water from under the ground
  31.2 Multiple postm(多级后位修饰)
  *32. Discontinuous modification(割裂修饰)
  32.1 Separation of relative clause from its antecedent(定语从句与所修饰的名词割裂)
  32.2 Separation of V-ing / V-ed / Prep-phrase from its head noun(现在分词 / 过去分词 / 介词短语与所修饰的名词割裂)
  32.3 Separation of appositive(clause)from its antecedent(同位语[从句]与所同位的词的割裂)
  32.4 Separation of Prep-phrase from adjective(介词短语与形容词割裂)
  e.g. different techniques from those
  33. Subject-verb inversion(主语与谓语倒装)
  33.1 Sentences beginning with neither, nor, so, etc.
  33.2 Sentences beginning with negative adverb expressions
  e.g. hardly, never, rarely, etc.
  33.3 Sentences beginning with adverbs of position and direction
  e.g. here, there, down, away, etc.
  33.4 Sentences beginning with a fronted predicative
  e.g. More important is the principle of…
  33.5 Sentences beginning with only + Adv, not only
  *34. Parenthesis(插入语)
  e. g. actually, generally speaking, to be exact, as a result, as you see, etc.
  *35. Omission(省略)
  35.1 Omission through coordination (并列结构中的省略)
  e. g. It’s cold in December in England, but (it’s cold ) in July in New Zealand.
  35.2 Omission in the following clauses:(下列从句中的省略)
  Whether…or not, whatever, as, than, the…,the…
  *36. Negation (否定)
  36.1 Total negation(全部否定)
  36.2 Partial negation (部分否定)
  36.3 Double negation (双重否定)
  35.4 Transferred negation (转移否定)
  e. g. I don’t think it will be cold today.
  *37. Emphasis(强调)
  37.1 By single words or phases(用单个词或词组)
  e. g. only, even, just, ever, alone, must, still, too, very, a good (great) deal, (by) far, a lot etc.
  37.2 By reflexive pronouns, auxiliary verb do or emphatic it(用反身代词、助动词do或强调结构中的it)
  37.3 By inversion or competition(用倒装或重复)
  e.g. Hardly did I think it possible.
  I agree with every word you have said?every single word.
  *38. Word formation(构词法)
  38.1 Affixation(词缀法)
  38.2 Conversion(转化法)
  38.3 Compounding(合成法)
  *39. Abbreviation(缩略法)
  e.g. TV, ad, smog, etc.
  40. Punctuation(标点) 原版 

高考英语语法考试分离型陷阱归纳

  请看下面两道高考题:
  1. Later in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers ________ consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law. (2008江西卷)
  A. where B. when C. who D. which
  【分析】答案为A。where在此引导定语从句,其先行词为cases。在一般情况,定语从句应紧跟在先行词之后,其间不能插入其他成分,但在本题中,定语从句与先行词被分开,若不注意到这一点,此题很容易做错。句意为:在本章的后面部分,我们将为读者介绍一些事例,说明消费者的投诉已经使法律作出了修改。
  2. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, ________ New York is an example. (2008四川卷)
  A. for which B. in which C. of which D. from which
  【分析】答案为C。of which在此引导非限制性定语从句,其先行词为前面的many cities。在通常情况,定语从句应紧跟在先行词之后,其间不能插入其他成分,但在本题中,定语从句与先行词被分开,若不注意到这一点,此题很容易做错。句意为:对世界上许多城市来说,已经没有进一步发展的空间,纽约就是其中的一个例子。
  这两道题均涉及分离修饰的问题。综观近几年的高考英语单项填空题,有不少所谓的“难题”均与这类分离修饰有一定的关系,本文为同学们归纳了八类分离修饰的易错陷阱,希望引起大家的注意。
  主谓分离陷阱
  1.The girl as well as the other students ________ excited.
  A. was B. were C. being D. be
  【分析】依据题意“那个女孩还有其他的学生都很激动”,有些同学可能会选 B。其实 正确答案是A。当主语后面跟有 as well as, as much as, with, together with, no less than, along with, like, rather than, no more than, in addition to, but, except, besides, including 等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的单复数随主语的单复数而定,造成主语和谓语分离,让同学们误入陷阱。请做以下几题(答案均选A):
  (1) No one but her parents ________ it.
  A. knows B. know C. is knowing D. are knowing
  (2) Mary, together with two boys, ________ for having broken the rule.
  A. was punished B. punished C. were punished D. being punished
  (3) A library with five thousand books ________ to the nation as a gift.
  A. is offered B. hasn’t decided C. aren’t decided D. haven’t decided
  (4) The teacher, together with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ________ visiting a museum when the earthquake struck.
  A. was B. were C. had been D. would be
  2. The ________ we saw yesterday come out from the farm once in a while.
  A. cow B. dog C. horse D. deer
  【分析】此题粗略一看,选A、B、C、D四个选项都行。而有些同学看到名词 the farm 时,很容易误选为A。因为与农场关系密切的当属cow。其实不然,此题答案选 D。这道试题着重考查的是时态环境下的主谓一致的语法现象。本句用的是一般现在时态,谓语是come out, 我们要选的词应该在句子中作主语,但是主语和谓语之间有一个修饰先行词的定语从句(that / which )we saw yesterday,将句子的主语和谓语分开,从而增加了解题的难度。
  注意:解此类试题时,要分清句子的结构,抓住句子的主干,还要将句子的时态和主谓一致兼顾,才能准确无误地选对答案。
  3. A ________ of fish has been killed in this river because of serious pollution
  A. lot B. number C. mass D. great deal
  【分析】此题答案很容易误选为A 或D。很多同学在看到谓语形式是 has been killed时,就以为 fish 是不可数名词。其实,正确答案为C。fish 在这里是表复数意义的可数名词,并且单复数同形。但这里的主语不是fish,而是mass,主谓隔离使同学们误入陷阱。“a mass of + n. + 谓语单数”=“masses of + n. + 谓语复数”。请看以下类似的例子:
  (1) Large amounts of water ________ polluted since the factory was built last year.
  A. was B. were C. have been D. has been
  (2) A large quantity of crops ________ destroyed in the flood.
  A. was B. were C. have D. has
  第(1)题的答案为C。主语是amounts 而不是 water;第(2)题答案为B。主语是quantity而不是crops。
  句型分离陷阱
  1. In the wartime, the masses devoted ________ they had ________ the army in fighting against the Japanese.
  A. whatever; to supporting B. what; supporting
  C. anything which; to supporting D. all; to supporting
  【分析】此题很容易误选为 C或者D。其实正确答案是 A。这道题目考查的是一个固定句型搭配,即 devote (time, money, energy…) to (doing) sth。devote 后接了一个由 whatever 引导的宾语从句。此题的难点在于我们要选的第1空是名词或代词或名词性从句作devote 的宾语,隔离了这个动词短语固定搭配,增加了解题难度。C 项中 anything 为不定代词,后接定语从句时其关系代词用 that 而不用 which,故C错误。
  2. How long do you think it is ________ she arrived here?
  A. when B. that C. before D. since
  【分析】面对这道题,很多同学觉得无从下手,很容易误选C。其实正确答案是D。此题是一个宾语从句,并且是疑问句,这无疑增加了解题难度。这里我们不妨把它变成陈述句。将do you think 看成插入语,则句子就变成了:It is (how long) since she arrived here. 这样,句子结构就一目了然。这是一个“It is + 段时间 + since…(自从……以来有多久了)”的句型。请注意区分下面相类似的句型:It will (not) be…before…(要过多久……才 / 不过多久就……)和It was(not)…before…(过了多久……才 / 没过多久就……)。
  3. It was ________ computer games that cost the boy a lot of time that he ought to have spent on his lessons.
  A. to have played B. playing C. played D. having played
  【分析】正确答案为B,考查的是强调句型,被强调成分是句子的主语,但其被强调句式 It was…that…隔离,增强了试题的迷惑性。这里我们应选动词的-ing形式作主语。请看下面相似的例子:
  (1) Was it during the Second World War ________ he died?
  A. that B. while C. in which D. then
  (2) ________ helped you work out that difficult maths problem?
  A.Who did B. it was who that C. Who it was that D. Who was it that
  第 (1) 题的答案为 A。是疑问句形式的强调句型,被强调的部分during the Second World War 在句中作状语;第 (2) 题的答案是D。被强调的是疑问词 who 在句中作主语。
  定语从句分离陷阱
  1. This is the biggest nature park for milu deer in China ________ they have visited.
  A. where B. in which C. that D. which
  【分析】解此题的关键在于找准定语从句中的先行词。此题中的先行词应该是 park,for milu deer 和in China 都是限定语修饰 park的;又因为 visit 是及物动词,应有宾语,而where和 in which只能作状语,据此可排除A和B;而这里的先行词又是被形容词的最高级所修饰,可排除 D,故答案选C。在这里,句中for milu deer 和in China 分离了先行词与它的定语从句,会使人产生错觉,误入陷阱。请看下面类似的例子
  (1) The day they were looking forward to________ at last.
  A. coming B. comes C. came D. come
  (2) Do the way you thought of ________ the water clean make any sense?
  A. making B. to make C. how to make D. having made
  第 (1) 题的答案为 C。主句的主语是 The day,其中 they were looking forward to 是一个定语从句;第 (2) 题的答案是B。其中 you thought of 是一个定语从句,它实际上考查的是短语the way to do sth / of doing sth 的用法。
  2. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________, of course, made the others unhappy.
  A. who B. which C. this D. that
  【分析】此题中的of course 对很多同学具有迷惑性和干扰性。事实上,答案选B。这是一个含有由 which 引导的非限制性定语从句的复合句(在非限制性定语从句不能用关系代词that 引导),在句子中 of course 是一个插入语,对句子作一些附加的修饰,并将定语从句和它的先行词隔离开来,从而增加解题难度。分析结构时我们可将其拿掉,使句式简化。
  3. Is this museum ________ some German friends visited the day before yesterday?
  A. which B. where C. that D. the one
  【分析】此题很容易误选为A或C,知道将它当作一个定语从句来看,但却误将 this museum 当成定语从句的先行词。其实,this museum 是主句的主语,这是一个疑问句,我们只要将句子还原成 This museum is… 就可以看出定语从句缺少了先行词。由此我们可知 D 是正确答案。做这一类试题时,常常将疑问句还原成陈述句,问题就变得简单了。请看下面类似的例子:
  (1) Is this museum ________ his father worked ten years ago?
  A. in which B. where C. that D. the one
  (2) Is this the museum ________ some German friends visited the day before yesterday?
  A. in which B. where C. that D. the one
  分析:第(1)题答案是 B。将题干还原成:This museum is ________ his father worked ten years ago. 便可知这是一个由where 引导的表语从句, 在表语从句中 where 不能用“介词 + which”来替换;第(2)题的答案是C。将题干还原成:This is the museum ________ some German friends visited the day before yesterday. 便不难看出句子的主干是 This is the museum 其后是一个定语从句修饰先行词 the museum的,所以应选关系代词作从句谓语动词visited 的宾语。
  插入语分离陷阱
  Generally speaking, ________ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect
  A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be take
  【分析】此题正确答案为 B。考查分词短语作状语的用法,在这道试题中,我们所要填的非谓语动词的逻辑主语是 the drug,所以用过去分词表被动。但在分词短语后有一插入语 according to the direction,增加了试题的难度。做这一类题目时,要学会抓住句子的主干,去掉枝叶,问题就迎刃而解。试看下面的例题:
  (1) Everyone, in our hometown, men and women, old and young, ________ singing and dancing.
  A. are fond of B. enjoys C. go in for D. take part in
  (2) The manager decided to give the job to ________ he believed had a strong sense of duty.
  A. whomever B. who C. whoever D. those
  (3) John plays football ________, if not better than, David.
  A. as well B. as good C. as well as D. as good as
  第 (1) 题选B。主语是 everyone,其中 men and women, old and young 为插入语;第 (2) 题选 C。he believed 为插入语;第 (3) 题选C。这是一个比较句型,if not better than是插入语,也是一个省略形式的比较句型。
  名词性从句分离陷阱
  he news has come from the capital ________ an important meeting is to be held there.
  A. where B. in which C. that D. which
  【分析】此题很容易误选为 A 或B,原因是错把capital 作为先行词,误选 where 或 in which 在定语从句中作状语。而事实上,从句后面已经有状语 there。若选 D,则 which 在从句中做何成分无法认可,从而可以排除,故答案选C。实际上,这是以that引导的同位语从句,修饰名词the news。has come from the capital 插在中间,导致了同位语从句和它所说明的词分离,形成了干扰,使人容易误入陷阱。
  注意:有些名词性从句与所解释说明的词之间会有词组、短语、或别的结构成分,使相关的部分隔离,这种语言现象,增加了试题的难度,只有识别结构,才能化难为易。请同学们看下面类似的例子
  (1) Information has been put forward ________ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.
  A. while B. that C. when D. as
  (2) The question came up at yesterday’s meeting ________ we had enough money for our research.
  A. which B. if C. that D. whether
  (3) The man will use what he has ________ a camera for his wife.
  A. to get B. got C. had bought D. buy
  第 (1) 题的答案是B;第 (2) 题的答案为D;第 (3) 题的答案是A,此句中,what he has 是一个宾语从句,to get a camera for his wife 作目的状语。不能把空格前的 has 和选项got 视为有联系的意群。
  短语动词分离陷阱
  He didn’t realize the use we ________ the information.
  A. made into B. made in C. made of D. made from
  【分析】题干中运用了短语动词 make use of,名词use 被提取出来,作了主句的宾语和定语从句的先行词,而定语从句中的关系代词which 或that代替先行词use,在从句中作宾语时可省略,因此从句中就仅留下了made of,故此题的正确答案应选 C。
  注意:做此类题型的关键在于善于将短语动词还原,问题也就迎刃而解了。若不抓住这一点,面对这一类题目就会无从下手。试看下面类似的例子:
  (1) The lecturer stressed that more attention will be ________ to the serious pollution.
  A. had B. paid C. take D. do
  (2) Thank you for the trouble you have ________ to help us.
  A. paid B. taken C. spent D. had
  (3) The trouble you have ________ helping us is really great.
  A. paid B. taken C. spent D. had
  第 (1) 题的正确答案是B。考查的是动词短语 pay attention to,名词attention 从其短语中分离出来作了句子的主语。第 (2) 题的答案是B。考查的是动词短语搭配 take (great / much / little…) trouble to do sth,其中 trouble 被分离出来作为主句的先行词,其后跟了一个省略了关系代词的定语从句,其关系代词就是对先行词的重复;第(3)题的答案是D。看起来它与第 (2) 题相似,答案却截然不同,很容易让同学们误入陷阱,其实这一题考查的是固定搭配:have trouble / difficulty (in) doing sth 同学们要牢记第 (2) 和第 (3) 这两个句型。
  疑问句隔离陷阱
  1. Who did Mr Baker ________ the information?
  A. have check B. have checked C. have to check D. have been checking
  【分析】这道题很容易被误选为B或C。其实正确答案是A。考查的是句型 have sb do sth,即 have sb check the information,但其中的sb 就是句中的who,它被提前引起疑问句,而发生隔离现象,增加了试题的迷惑性。不过我们若将其还原成陈述句,问题就不再是问题了。请看下面相似的例子:
  (1) Who did you ________ your report for tomorrow’s meeting?
  A. have typed B. have it typed C. have type D. have it type
  (2) Whom do you think he would ________a letter of congratulation to the policeman?
  A. have post B. have posted C. have to post D. have posting
  (3) Is this the bike you wish to have ________?
  A. repaired it B. repaired C. repair D. it repaired
  第(1)题答案为C。道理和上面的例题一样,考查的是动词短语 have sb do sth,即 have sb type the report;第(2)题的答案为A;第(3)题的答案为B。考查 have sth done 的用法,其中,you wish to have repaired 是一个省略关系代词 which / that 的定语从句。
  2. ________ the house Mr Zhang has been broken into?
  A. When was it that B. When has C. Has D. When was
  【分析】面对这道题,同学们首先就想到了强调句型,于是就选了A。其实,判断它是不是强调句型,只要将强调句式It be…that / who 去掉,再调整句子的语序,看句子是否通顺,通顺则就是,不通就不是强调句型。若将句子中的 was it that 去掉,题干就变成了 When the house,很显然,此句不成立,所以选 A 错误。其实正确答案是C。题干中的主语 the house 后面有一个定语从句(which / that) Mr Zhang has,而且这是一个疑问句,句子的主语和谓语被定语从句隔离,从而增加了解题的难度,若将修饰主语后的定语从句拿掉,句子就变成了:________ the house been broken into? 这样,选哪个选项就一目了然了。做这一类试题时,着重在于分析句子,去掉枝叶,抓住主干,问题就迎刃而解。请看将上面的例题稍做改动后的例子:
  ________ the house Mr Zhang has broken into?
  A. When was that B. When has C. Has D. When was
  答案选D。此句是一个一般形式的特殊疑问句;若选A,则是强调 when 的强调句式下的一个一般疑问句。
  结构分离陷阱
  He went there to call on an old friend of his and ________ there for a few days.
  A. to stay B. stay C. left D. stayed
  【分析】本题很容易被误选为 A或者B。认为 and 连接的是 to call on 和 stay 两个并列的不定式成分。其实,正确答案是D。and 连接的是went there 和stayed 两个动词短语。做这一类题目时,同学们一定要分清结构,不要一叶障目,误入陷阱。请做以下两题:
  (1) They would rather spend time ________ than ________ in the street.
  A. read; wander B. reading; wandering
  C. in reading; to wander D. reading; wander
  (2) As far as I know, he spends at least as much time watching TV as he ________.
  A. does writing B. writes C. writing D. does to write
  第(1)题的答案为D。考查的是句型 would rather do sth than do sth 的用法,其中这个句型连接的是 spend time reading 和wander in the street 两个动词短语;第(2)题的答案是A。考查的是 spend time / money / energy (in) doing sth 在比较句型 as…as 中的用法,其中 does 是替代前面所出现的动词 spend。